However, such plans require resources far beyond the current capabilities of Sindh and Balochistan, both of which were inundated by the 2022 deluge.
The question of financing looms large: the World Bank estimates Pakistan needs $348bn by 2030, merely to maintain resilience. The financial gap to achieve climate-linked SDGs in developing countries has widened alarmingly, reaching $5.2tr annually. This necessitates a radical overhaul of the international financial system to better support climatevulnerable countries. NAP integrates climate-adaptation goals into every facet of development planning. It is imperative that global financial mechanisms mirror this integration.
Unfortunately, the Global Goal on Adaptation a collective commitment under the Paris Agreement aimed at reducing vulnerability to climate change remains undercapitalised, and the L&D fund is yet to be made functional.
Recommendations by the UN secretary general to scale up renewable funding also need implementation. Moreover, the role of the private sector in providing structural incentives for climate-resilient investments cannot be overstated.
As Pakistan presents its case at COP28, the focus must be on ensuring that the L&D fund is tailored to meet the specific requirements of nations like itself. This includes a strong push for utilising grant-based public finance as the main source of capital and effectively executing the fund within the framework of the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement. The challenges are manifold, and the path ahead is fraught with complexities. Yet, the conference presents a unique opportunity for global leaders to demonstrate their commitment to climate justice. For Pakistan and other vulnerable nations, it is not just a diplomatic engagement but a fight for survival and a plea for equitable, effective action against the climate crisis. The world must not fail them.