54 murdered in one month in Faisalabad division – 02 Feb 2023

Former District Bar Association president was shot dead on Jan 10

The law and order situation in Faisalabad region is spiraling beyond the control of the police. In one month, 54 people, including the former Bar President, were killed. Police officers continued to take action against the accused, while citizens and civil society expressed concern over the killings in Faisalabad.

In 2022, 369 people, including 78 women, were killed and 23 people, including a woman, lost their lives after being shot by suspects while resisting robbery. During the last three months of 2022, the RPO, CPO and DPOs were shuffled four times across the region, yet law and order continued to deteriorate.

In January 2023, a total of 54 people were killed within the limits of 80 police stations in Faisalabad, Jhang, Toba Tek Singh, and Chiniot. Among the dead were former District Bar Association president Chaudhry Naveed Mukhtar Ghuman and his driver Binyamin near the Mosque in the Goal Masjid area of Police Station Batala Colony.

Additionally, 60-year-old Buta, 40-year-old Qaisar and 45-year-old Sarfraz Kumboh were also killed. Separately, 3 persons were killed in the area of Razabad Police Station and two each were killed within the limits of Saddar, Nishatabad, Saddar Jaranwala, City, Samandari, Rodala and Roshanwala.

Similarly, 10 people were killed in other incidents, including a double murder, within the limits of twelve police stations in Toba Tek Singh. Seven people were killed in the jurisdiction of fourteen police stations in Jhang district, while 4 people were killed within the areas of ten police stations of Chiniot district.

Around 49 FIRs were registered by the police in response to the aforementioned incidents.

Along with frequent changes within the Punjab government, four RPOs were posted in Faisalabad division. Dr Abid Khan was appointed as the fifth RPO. Additionally, five CPOs were shuffled in Faisalabad district, with Syed Khalid Mahmood Hamdani taking command most recently.

The law and order situation in Faisalabad has worsened due to the frequent reshuffling of senior officers over three months, while citizens are increasingly insecure due to increasing incidents of robbery and murder.

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Missing man found burnt in Islamabad – 02 Feb 2023

TOBA TEK SINGH: A man from Chak 202-RB in Faisalabad, missing since Jan 24, was found burned in Islamabad`s B17 sector.

According to the Millat Town police FIR registered on Wednesday under sections 302 and 365 of the Pakistan Penal Code, complainant Javed Iqbal said his brother, Zahid Iqbal Zia, contracted a love marriage with Summan Bibi and they had three children.

He said the whole family was kidnapped by unidentified persons on Jan24 from their house. He went on to say that the burnt body of Zahid had been recovered from Islamabad, but other family members were still missing. Police are investigating.

DIES: On Wednesday, a labourer was crushed to death in a fabric processing machine in Faisalabad at a mill near the toll plaza on Satiana Road.

Rescue 1122 said Shaukat Ali of Mamoon Kanjun was working on a machine in the factory when his hand unexpectedly got entangled in it, causing the machine to crush him to death.COMMISSIONER: Commissioner Silwat Saeed says that with the support of philanthropists, the medical emergency services of the Allied Hospital will be expanded.

She said this at a meeting on Wednesday that was attended by Punjab Medical University VC Prof Dr Zafar Ali Chaudhry, Allied Hospital Medical Superintendent Dr Arshad Cheema, industrialists Syed Umar Nazar Shah, Shahid Javed, Shoaib Mukhtar, Farooq Ahmed Sheikh and Ahmed Shafi.

She appreciated thesupport of the business community in the development of the city. She appreciated the establishment of Ehsan Dastarkhan and said the divisional and district administration will provide all possible support for this public initiative.

A Jashan Baharan will be planned with the government and private schools and colleges, in which industrialists will be involved.

Syed Umar Nazar Shah informed about the steps taken in the field of development, education and health of the city from the forum of Faisalabad Development Trust.

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Minor girl, missing for two weeks, found killed – 02 Feb 2023

KASUR: Police in Phoolnagar recovered the body of a minor girl who had been missing since January 15 near a drain on Wednesday.

Eman Fatima went missing from her home in Kharak Singh on January 15.

The body was discovered by authorities in the village of Bughiwala, around 2 kilometres from her home.

According to police, Eman left her home to see her grandmother in the same neighbourhood but did not return.

Following a diligent search, the familycontacted local police and filed a case against unidentified kidnappers.

A team was formed to find the missing child, and drones were used to do so. On Wednesday, police recovered a sack-packed body after a farmer informed them. According to officials, Eman`s father identified the body.

According to police, the girl was strangled with a wire. The authorities believe it will be difficult to obtain a DNA sample from the decomposed body. Malik Tariq, CIA in charge, stated that police would use all available resources to solve the issue. Imran Karamat, DPO, visited to the scene.

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Suspect held for causing commotion in girls college – 02 Feb 2023

BAHAWALNAGAR: The Minchinabad police arrested one of the 11 people on Wednesday for forcing their way into the Government Degree College for Women, insulting and thrashing the personnel and threatening them with consequences.

According to the FIR filed on Principal Asifa Rasheed`s complaint, on Jan 31, an unidentified woman stormed into her office and misbehaved with her. Then, five armed men and as many women stormed into the principal`s office and caused a commotion.

When the staff attempted to rescue the principal, the intruders manhandled female employees and intimidated male workers.

Bushra, Meraj Kausar and Muhammad Riaz were among those injured in the chaos. The intruders later escaped, brandishing firearms. The event was also captured on video. According to college sources, the attackers were looking for a woman with whom they had a marital problem. They stormed the college, pushing the lone security guard. The students and their families were terrified by the incident. Locals urged that the college`s security be increased, calling it a security lapse.

According to a college staffer, the college only had one official watchman, but the management had hired a private security guard. The employee claimed that almost all government colleges in the district had a similar security vulnerability.

The college principal was unreachable for comment, but a representative for the DPO claimed that one of the accused, Sharafat, had been arrested and that raids were being conducted to apprehend the remaining suspects.


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Remand of factory owner extended in Keamari deaths case – 02 Feb 2023

KARACHI: A judicial magistrate on Wednesday extended the police remand of the owner of a factory for five days who was held over deaths of 18 people due to alleged leakage of toxic gases from his factory in Keamari.

Police had arrested the owner of a plastic recycling factory, Khair Muhammad alias Sher Muhammad, and booked him along with co-owners Shahid Husain and Saeed Khan over their alleged negligent conduct that led to the emission of toxic fumes resulting in deaths of 18 residents of Ali Muhammad Goth over the last two weeks.

On Wednesday, the investigating officer (IO) produced the held factory owner before the judicial magistrate (West) on expiry of his physical remand in police custody and pleaded to extend the same for further questioning.

The IO submitted that the suspect was running a plastic recycling factory from where toxic fumes were released in the area. He further submitted that the suspect was running such industrial unit without having obtained any authority letter or licence from the authorities concerned.

To the magistrate`s query about progress in the investigation, the IO informed that the deputy commissioner concerned had sealed off the said factory due to which he could visit the same to collect the evidence, etc.

However, he said a letter had been sent to the health authorities and a reply was awaited.

The magistrate expressed his annoyance over the delays in investigation of the matter saying he apparently was just relying upon communications despite the passage of many days.

The IO said the affected people had alleged that their relatives had died from inhaling the toxic gases emitted from the factory owned by the held suspect and his two brothers, who were still at large.

On the other hand, Advocate Munawar Ali Lakhair filed power of attorney on behalf of the held suspect Khair Muhammad and submitted that his client was not running any factory, but owned a warehouse.

Suspect Khair Muhammad said that he was doing the business of plastic bags` recycling and claimed had this work produced any toxic gases, his labourers would have died first.

He added that the deaths were rather caused by the measles outbreak in the area.

The complainant alleged that the suspects were running the plastic recycling business without taking preventive measures, adding that the residents had first fallen sick after inhaling the toxic gases emitted during the process and then they had died.

Granting the IO`s request, the magistrate extended physical remand of the suspect in police custody for five days, and directed the IO to produce him on the next date along with an investigation report.

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Registration of another school suspended over corporal punishment – 02 Feb 2023

KARACHI: The Directorate of Inspection/ Registration of Private Schools Sindh on Wednesday suspended the registration of another private school, this time in Korangi, for resorting to harsh corporal punishment, which resulted in fracturing a student`s elbow.

Abdul Rafay, a class seven student at Al-Seher Academy Secondary School in Korangi-3, was beaten so badly by his class teacher, identified as Hafsa, that his right elbow was fractured.

Following a complaint lodged with the boy`s father Mohammed Rizwan to the directorate of inspection, an inquiry committee comprising the officers of the directorate visited the school to conduct a probe into the matter.

According to their findings, the facts provided to them by the student`s father were correct and the school violated the Sindh Prohibition of Corporal Punishment Act 2016.

Therefore, its registration certificate has been suspended till further orders.

A disciplinary fine of Rs25,000 has also been imposed on the school. The school shall also bear all the expenditure incurred on Abdul Rafay`s medical treatment.

On Jan 30, the directorate had suspended the registration of the Civilizations Public School, a private English-medium school situated in Block-J of North Nazimabad, for humiliating a student for speaking in national language Urdu.

The directorate had conducted an inquiry in which it was proved that the accusation of applying blackness on the face of the student by his teacher for not speaking in English was correct. It suspended the registration of the school and imposed a disciplinary fine of Rs100,000 on the school.

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Get serious! – 02 Feb 2023

The terror backlash is evident all over, and disgruntled elements are out to bleed the nation

It’s a moment of astute introspection. Something serious and out of the box needs to be done. The terror backlash is evident all over, and disgruntled elements are out to bleed the nation. The mayhem in Peshawar is a testimony that the war on terror is yet to be won, and the faceless enemy is very much in our rank and file. The military top-brass, 255th Corps Commanders’ Conference, that met on Tuesday to take stock of the situation was on the spot as it reiterated plans to dismantle the terror nexus. That resolve has been there for long, and the armed forces have made great sacrifices. Thus, what is needed is a strategy with an implementation arm to crush not only the hardcore criminals who have taken up arms against the nation and the state, but also to exterminate their abettors in the body politic. It is tantamount to a purge in the edifice of the state, and only then can terrorism be checked in all forms and manifestations.

The mosque bombing in Peshawar, which led to the killing of around 100 people, has come close on the heels of a Bannu police station takeover by non-state actors. Likewise, there are rampant reports of shootouts and encounters with law-enforcement personnel and disgruntled elements operating at impunity in the settled and tribal areas of Pakistan. Moreover, the audacity of the Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan, and their likes, to claim responsibility for attacks and vow to go ahead with many more is unacceptable. It must be reacted to with full force. This devastation is owing to our own shortcomings, and the so-called policy of appeasement in the form of talking to the terrorists has emboldened unscrupulous elements.

As decided by the civil and military hierarchy, let there be a consensus now that there would be no talks with any terror outfits, and those advocating it should be singled out. Pakistan is passing through a critical phase that impacts its very stability and security. Thus, it is a question of its survival and there cannot be any lopsided approach in it.

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Tackling militancy – 02 Feb 2023

The January 30 terror attack inside a mosque in Peshawar has terrified the people of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), who had been warning the government of the possible resurgence of militancy for years now.

The attack, which has claimed the lives of at least 100 people besides injuring over 200, has widely been condemned by Pakistani leaders as well as the international community. It is the worst attack of this year so far, second to last year’s terrible attack that ripped through a mosque in Peshawar’s old city.

Besides condemning the attack, political leaders criticized former prime minister Imran Khan and accused him of making plans to resettle TTP militants in the erstwhile Fata. While it is true that Khan came up with the idea of engaging the outlawed TTP in talks and that he suggested that the banned outfit should be allowed to open their offices in the country, putting all the blame on the former PM is unfair.

Though we can recall Khan’s statement given right after the Taliban takeover of Afghanistan where he said that Afghans had broken the shackles of slavery, we should not forget that Pakistan’s incumbent defence minister Khawaja Asif also celebrated the victory of the Taliban in Afghanistan. In his tweet, he implied that even though the West was powerful, Divine intervention helped the other side.

Both Khan and Asif ignored the fact that the TTP revolted against the Pakistani state and justified its actions by claiming that since Islamabad did not side with the Afghan Taliban in the aftermath of the US attack on the Mullah Omar regime, TTP militants were justified in attacking the Pakistani forces. It was this ideological proximity between the Afghan and Pakistan Taliban that prompted militants in the erstwhile Fata to host the fleeing Afghan Taliban leaders and militants because they considered them ‘muhajir’, assuming themselves as ‘ansaar’.

Pakistan’s U-turn with regard to the Afghan Taliban after the 9/11 attacks was the main factor that infuriated jihadi and sectarian outfits in the country, prompting them to join hands and wreak havoc across the country, killing thousands of Pakistanis besides causing losses of billions of dollars.

It was not only Asif and Khan who tried to appease the Taliban. But from the late dictator General Zia to Hameed Gul, to right-wing Nawaz Sharif, to liberal Benazir Bhutto, to the nationalist ANP, to the religious JUI-F, all share some blame for encouraging the Taliban.

Didn’t Naseerullah Babar – right under the nose of Benazir Bhutto – declare the Afghan Taliban as ‘our children’? Didn’t Hameed Gul consider TTP militants as misguided youths? Were it not the nationalist ANP and the liberal PPP that introduced nizam-e-adl in Swat to placate extremists? Didn’t Shehbaz Sharif, as the CM of Punjab, ask the TTP militants not to target Punjab at a time when the group was carrying out a series of terror attacks across the country? There was a time when the Muttahid Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) government led by the JUI-F turned a blind eye to the activities of extremist forces in KP.

What has been done cannot be undone. Let us bury the past, move forward and accept some bitter truths. We cannot have peace in our country if our neighbour is under fire and will have to put an end to our hypocritical approach. There should not be any difference between what we say and what we practice. If we want democracy in Afghanistan, we should not support those who have taken over Kabul without a popular vote.

If we want our women to get education, walk freely, find employment and do businesses, we should not throw our unflinching support behind those who have turned a war-torn country into a giant prison for women and girls. If we want to respect human rights in our country, we should seek the same in the region and elsewhere.

It is unfortunate that we advocate the sacredness of the vote in Pakistan but want to see Afghans deprived of this right. Since Afghanistan is no more under occupation, we must persuade the Afghan Taliban to hold free and fair elections. If they are confident about their popularity, they should be certain about their victory.

The Afghan Taliban must understand that democracy – with all its demerits – is the only system that ensures the peaceful transition of power. First, they took over Kabul with the help of force, and now the IS is trying to do the same against their regime.

People may ask why Afghanistan should be mentioned in Pakistan’s internal security matters. The answer is clear: our security is closely linked to what happens in the neighbouring country. If the Afghan Taliban agree to contest elections in Afghanistan, the TTP will lose its justification for waging a war against the Pakistan state.

Apart from changing our Afghan policy, we will also have to take other measures. The international community and Middle Eastern states also share some responsibility for the mess that we are in. These states along with the US pumped billions of dollars into this extremist ideology.

Today, Saudi Arabia seems determined to transform its conservative kingdom into a modern society that respects human rights and promotes science and technology. Our ruling elite that claims to enjoy cordial ties with Riyadh should seek its support, requesting the country to help us turn religious seminaries into places of modern learning where subjects like science, mathematics, chemistry, biology, etc, are also taught.

Also, we must teach our seminary students the skills that can help them find livelihood. More than two million students are believed to be studying at 36,000 registered madrassahs. Teaching them how to work as mechanics, auto electricians, plumbers, carpenters, medical assistants and computer operators may help them find employment after completing their courses that have little relevance to job markets. Drastic changes to our syllabus and scrapping obscurantist laws would also be helpful in battling the ideology of religious bigotry that prompts people to join militant outfits and challenge the writ of the state. All the retrogressive laws that were enacted by our past governments should also be abolished.

Mere condemnation and blame game will not help. Allegations will only encourage the TTP to dismiss politicians as selfish, incompetent and corrupt. It is time our political elite thought of socio-economic measures to tackle the resurgence of militancy.

The writer is a freelance journalist who can be reached at: egalitarianism444@gmail.com

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A culture of violence – 02 Feb 2023

Our society has become more and more violent. There is no doubt about this and plenty of evidence to illustrate the point. In recent years we have the terrible murder of the Sri Lankan factory employee in Sialkot who was killed by a mob. Before this, we also have the brutal killing of Mashal Khan at his university in Charsadda and other incidents which include the burning alive of a Christian couple, again on charges of blasphemy. There have been many other cases involving the abduction and in some cases torture of persons accused of marrying of their free will.

There is also some body of evidence which suggests our political culture has contributed to these attitudes seeping down into society. The abusive language and misogyny used by our politicians has had an impact on younger people, particularly since the PTI, which is perhaps a party most guilty of the use of abuse, is followed by youngsters to a considerable extent. Other parties too are not completely clean in this regard and have used the most offensive language now and in the past.

The culture of misogyny persists, and so does the growing violence. This is depicted by the use of firearms to celebrate events such as weddings and New Year’s Eve. In other cultures such occasions are marked by music, celebration, and dance. The question is how this culture is spreading and how quickly this is happening. The murder of polio workers and the placing of fake news over the internet is yet another example of the culture we have built.

One of the latest examples comes from an elite school in Lahore. It begins with a young girl being beaten by fellow students, apparently because she sent videos of drug use to her father. The story is still somewhat hidden in doubt and a lack of clarity. The school administration remains silent about the entire matter. An FIR has, however, been booked against the girls who beat the girl, as well as the victim herself. The video posted on social media also shows boys cheering on the girls and suggesting to them how they should further torture the victim. This is frightening since it involves 14, 15 and 16-year-olds, or perhaps students even younger than that.

The parents have spoken up, and the students, as is the case at most elite schools, are influential with links to powerful political families. But the failure on the part of school administration to act is shameful. The same is true of other elite schools with parents often discouraging talk about drugs, sex or other activities on the basis that their children are unfamiliar with these activities and will become ‘corrupted’ if they are exposed to talks giving information about them. Nothing could be further from the truth given that we know from around the world that when knowledge is provided to young people, they are less likely to engage in dangerous activities. This is not always the case, but certainly it does help.

The other question is of providing alternative recreation to young people. The fact is that young people will always require entertainment and some stimulation in one form or the other. It is best if arrangements are made for this to come through music, dance, the performing arts, comedy, standup shows, debates, sports and other activities rather than through the use of drugs, the possible dangers of which children only rarely understand. Most alarming of all is the degree of violence that is creeping in behind these activities. We all know of bullying at schools. It has always existed. But now cyber-bullying has become a very real norm at more and more educational institutions across the country. The most vulnerable and weakest are often picked upon.

There are too many incidents of a similar nature and far too much violence in society. Regard for human life, which should be a norm, has increasingly vanished. There is very little empathy for others. In Sindh, people in elite areas of Karachi have been filmed talking with concern about how the victims of the recent floods in rural Sindh may soon enter Karachi and engage in petty theft or take up residence close to posh areas. There is very little empathy and no organization amongst many of the so-called elite to help the flood-affected. Instead, there is scorn and only a selfish concern for their own welfare and for their own survival. Even in a situation where tens of thousands of people are so badly affected that they live in freezing conditions in houses surrounded by water and built only of timber and pieces of canvas, most societies would show more empathy for their own citizens in such a situation.

We have had similar situations in places such as Hunza where tourists have been guilty of harassing local people and where women have begun to disappear from the streets of Hunza and other cities in the area because of the harassment and lack of concern which adds to the culture that they face. This is disturbing and requires some measures to curb the kind of mentality which goes behind it. We see violence breaking out quickly in other places as well, including our parliament, and in places such as Utility Stores or even stores selling expensive suits, where women battle it out over the latest design that they wish to acquire.

This is completely ridiculous and shows a society that is simply falling apart. The lack of political will and the lack of good governance on the part of those who rule us adds to all this. Their behaviour influences those of others in society. This needs to change in one way or the other. Unless it does, we will face a greater tendency to resort to violence and pass this tradition down to our children, who should be taught to respect others rather than treating them as inhuman or to torture them, as has happened in too many places.

The writer is a freelance columnist and former newspaper editor. She can be reached at:


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Institutional police response – 02 Feb 2023

IN the past year, there has been a record spike in attacks by the TTP and Baloch separatists on Pakistan`s law-enforcement agencies. Over this period, more than 100 policemen were martyred in the line of duty. The rather soft response to these acts of terrorism, as feared, has now culminated in the Peshawar Police Lines mosque attack. To underscore their nefarious intentions, the militants attacked a police station in Punjab the very next day.

It is inexplicable why, despite repeated failures and betrayal by the TTP resulting in catastrophic outcomes, the government entered into peace negotiations with the outfit. In what is a form of déjà vu,the release of TTP members and their incursion into Malakand and Waziristan, with `parchis` (demand for extortion money) for local political leaders, echo the ominous pattern of their earlier rise. Fearing reprisals by these terrorists, PTPs KP government entered a state of denial. However, civil society which had suffered the most in the past under TTP control voiced its protests against such ill-advised appeasement by the state in massive public gatherings. These voices sadly were not taken seriously.

Undeterred by this public show of resentment, the TTP began to systematically target the police, civil armed forces and the army with newly acquired weapons, thanks to the hasty and chaotic withdrawal of the American forces in Afghanistan. The last few weeks have witnessed audacious attacks on KP police stations, inflicting heavy casualties on the ill-equipped and thinly deployed police force which is housed in unsafe, hastily acquired premises. Attempted suicide attacks in other parts of the country, including Islamabad, further demonstrates the nefarious intentions of the TTP.

These acts ofterrorhave engendered a sense of insecurity, with negative ramifications for a country beset with economic woes and political instability. A besieged federal coalition government is petrified and unable to confront and tackle this challenge. State institutions are therefore bound to fill this void. A case in point is the Pakistan Army which has shown its resolve to neutralise this emerging threat. We are allconfident that our armed forces, with their exemplary record of vanquishing the TTP in the recent past, have the will and capacity to decimate these elements and restore peace.

In the past, the police leadership felt that controlling terrorism and insurgency was not within the ambit of police responsibility. However, in the 1990s, recognising that modern-day acts of terror were essentially crimes, the leadership began to understand that it was the duty of the force toprevent,detect and punishthe perpetrators through well-defined procedural law. With this realisation, special cells and later wings were created in police forces nationwide to deal robustly with this rising threat. In Sindh, the police took the lead in tackling urban terrorism head on, while specialised investigation units to counter terrorism were created in Punjab and KP. This has now been expanded to the remainingprovincialforces.

These steps enabled the police forces to withstand the brutal onslaught of diverse terrorist groups lent momentum by seetarian and `nationalist` theories. This played a key role in the restoration of peace. Punjab`s Counter-Terrorism Department deserves special mention.

Originally operating as the Criminal Investigation Department, the latter was transformed by Mr Tariq Parvez, a professional police officer who headed this unit for seven years and who laid the foundation for a modern and efficient Counter-Terrorism Department, later to be replicated in the rest of the country.

These departments have the experience and ability to deal with terrorism in the provinces.

Mr Parvez later introduced the concept of a central authority, namely Nacta, to deal with this menace. Sadly, this valuable initiative was scuttled when, against his advice, the body was placed under the interior ministry rather than directly under the chief executive of the country.

Parallel to these progressions in antiterrorism structures, another important development was taking place to establish institutional arrangements for the police leadership to address internal security issues gaining prominence as hostile states increasingly caused ruptures in rivalcountries by deploying proxies linked to local issues.

The Police Order, 2002, created the National Police Management Board within the interior ministry so that a coherent and unified police response on `crime control and internal security` could be conveyed to the government for managing any crisis situation spanning across provincial borders. Unfortunately, due to lack of interest on the part of the police leadership, the NPMB has remained a dormant body. Now is the time and opportunity, under these turbulent circumstances, to not only activate but also institutionalise the collective voice of the civilian police through a legally constituted platform in order to effectively quell the threat of the burgeoning TTP insurgency in KP that threatens to spill into other parts of the country.

It is the professional and moral duty of the police leadership to demand and insist on better equipment, purpose-built infrastructure and equipment outmatching the gear being used by the terrorists. It is also the responsibility of the police command to use the NPMB to update and improve the training of its personnel. Only these measures will allow police personnel to confront and fight terrorists in all areas of the country including the cities. Times have changed and the battle against terrorism looks likely to be a long one. The only way to vanquish the threat and restore lasting peace is to deal with every act of terror as a special criminal case that must be followed relentlessly by snatching the initiative from the terrorists. Instead of waiting for them to attack and add to our list of martyrs, the battle should be taken to them.

The NPMB must play its role effectively and boldly for no government can ignore the collective professional advice of the police leadership.

In addition to the resources for police, NPMB must help to secure facilities and resources for witness protection and deradicalisation programmes and ensure compensation for the victims of terrorism. It is high time to redefine the role of police as being an institution of civil society that cares for them. • The wúter was formedy IGP Sindh.

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